Recent research has shown that pride, like the "basic" emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, has a distinct, nonverbal expression that can be recognized by adults (J. L. Tracy & R. W. Robins, 2004b). In 2 experiments, the authors examined whether young children can identify the pride expression and distinguish it from expressions of happiness and surprise. Results suggest that (a) children can recognize pride at above-chance levels by age 4 years; (b) children recognize pride as well as they recognize happiness; (c) pride recognition, like happiness and surprise recognition, improves from age 3 to 7 years; and (d) children's ability to recognize pride cannot be accounted for by the use of a process of elimination (i.e., an exclusion rule) to identify an unknown entity. These findings have implications for the development of emotion recognition and children's ability to perceive and communicate pride. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Database Name: PsycINFO.
Email Address: [mailto:email@example.com].
Contact Individual: Tracy, Jessica L, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA, US, [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org].
Journal Volume: 5.
Journal Issue: 3.
Journal Pages: 251-257.
Publication Type: Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal; Original Journal Article.
Format Availability: Electronic; Print.
Format Covered: Electronic.
Methodology: Empirical Study; Quantitative Study.
Population: Human; Male; Female.
Age: Childhood (birth-12 yrs); Preschool Age (2-5 yrs); School Age (6-12 yrs).
Peer Reviewed: Yes.
Identifiers: pride; self-conscious emotion; emotion recognition; child development; nonverbal expression; happiness; surprise; age differences.
Classification: 2800 Developmental Psychology.
Number of References: 35 reference(s) present, 35 reference(s) displayed.
Accession Number: 2005-11380-001.
Cited by: 2 (on Jun 01, 2007).